Romanian Education System
Education in Romania is compulsory for 11 years, from the primary school to Grade 10 of upper secondary education. Grade 12 is the final year of upper secondary school.
At the age of 14, at the end of lower secondary education (Grade 8), Romanian students take a national examination (Evaluarea Națională), which assesses their performance in mathematics and Romanian language and literature. Results in this exam, their average grade at the end of each year of lower secondary and students’ individual school choices determine the upper secondary school and the type of program students will attend. Students may be assigned to one of three types of high school: technological, theoretical or vocational.
Technological high schools combine academic and vocational programs. In 2018 44.1% of 15-18 year-olds were enrolled in this option. The theoretical and vocational high schools both follow an academic program, but the latter have a special focus on arts, sports, theology or the military. In 2018, 45.1% of 15-18 year-olds were enrolled in theoretical and vocational high schools.
Admission to Higher Education
At the end of upper secondary education, students from all three types of high school must pass the baccalaureate examination if they wish to access tertiary education. The baccalaureate pass rate varies widely across the different types of high schools
Higher education in Romania is organized in universities, study academies, institutes, higher education schools. Higher education institutions may be state or private and are subject to accreditation by the Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education.
Since 2005, the higher education system in Romania has been organized in three cycles: Bachelor the first degree programs, master programs and doctorate programs compatible with the European qualification framework.
University level studies:
First Cycle: Bachelor/undergraduate programs
Depending on the type of bachelor’s program, studies have a different duration.
- 6 semesters (3 years) for sciences, humanities, economic and social sciences, political sciences, etc.;
- 8 semesters (4 years) for engineering, technique;
- 12 semesters (6 years) for general medicine, dental medicine, veterinary medicine and architecture.
Upon completion students are awarded a Diploma de Licenţă: a bachelor’s degree (240 credits).
Second cycle: Master’s programs
Master-degree studies take 2-4 semesters, are finalized by a dissertation and recognized through a Diploma de Master.
Third Cycle: PhD programs
Doctoral Diploma is the highest academic degree awarded in all domains after 3-4 years of study and original research. It follows the first academic degree (or master’s degree) and requires the passing of examinations and the submission of an original thesis. The holder of a doctoral diploma is granted the Ph.D. title in the respective field of science or arts.
(Source: EACEA / European Union)